Dear IIDA Reader,
We try to do the right, ethical and legal thing in bringing you content on this site and we hope you reciprocate when you read our site and share our content. All we ask is that you give us credit where appropriate and don’t edit our content. If we’ve made an error, please let us know. You can reach us at email@example.com at +1 312 467-1950.
For the stuff our lawyer made us include, read on:
PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS CAREFULLY.
Welcome to the website (the “website”) of IIDA. (“IIDA”). On this website, IIDA makes available to you a wide range of information, software, products, downloads, documents, communications, files, text, graphics, publications, content, tools, forums, resources, and services.
Use of Materials Limitations
All materials contained in the website are the copyrighted property of IIDA, its subsidiaries, affiliated companies and/or third-party licensors. All trademarks, service marks, and trade names are proprietary to IIDA, or its subsidiaries or affiliated companies and/or third-part licensors.
Unless otherwise specified, the materials and services on this website are for your personal and non-commercial use, and you may not modify, copy, distribute, transmit, display, perform, reproduce, publish, license, create derivative works from, transfer, or sell any information, software, products or services obtained from the website without the written permission from IIDA.
Use of Software on the Website
Any software that is made available to download from the website (“Software”) is the copyrighted work of IIDA and/or its suppliers. Use of the Software is governed by the terms of the end user license agreement, if any, which accompanies or is included with the Software (“License Agreement”), or as expressly stated on the website pages accompanying the software. An end user will be unable to download or install any Software that is accompanied by or includes a License Agreement, unless he or she first agrees to the License Agreement terms.
WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING, COPYING OR REPRODUCTION OF THE SOFTWARE TO ANY OTHER SERVER OR LOCATION FOR FURTHER REPRODUCTION OR REDISTRIBUTION IS EXPRESSLY PROHIBITED, UNLESS SUCH REPRODUCTION OR REDISTRIBUTION IS EXPRESSLY PERMITTED BY THE LICENSE AGREEMENT ACCOMPANYING SUCH SOFTWARE.
THE SOFTWARE IS WARRANTED, IF AT ALL, ONLY ACCORDING TO THE TERMS OF THE LICENSE AGREEMENT. EXCEPT AS WARRANTED IN THE LICENSE AGREEMENT, IIDA, INC. HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS WITH REGARD TO THE SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT.
FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE, IIDA MAY MAKE AVAILABLE AS PART OF THE SERVICES OR IN ITS MATERIALS OR SOFTWARE PRODUCTS, TOOLS AND UTILITIES FOR USE AND/OR DOWNLOAD. IIDA DOES NOT MAKE ANY ASSURANCES WITH REGARD TO THE ACCURACY OF THE RESULTS OR OUTPUT THAT DERIVES FROM SUCH USE OF ANY SUCH TOOLS AND UTILITIES. YOU SHALL RESPECT THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OF OTHERS WHEN USING THE TOOLS AND UTILITIES MADE AVAILABLE ON THE SERVICES OR IN IIDA SOFTWARE PRODUCTS.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND. Any Software which is downloaded from the website for or on behalf of the United States of America, its agencies and/or instrumentalities (“U.S. Government”), is provided with Restricted Rights. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c)(1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software – Restricted Rights at 48 CFR 52.227-19, as applicable.
Use of Documents and Publications on the Website
Except as expressly prohibited on this website, you are permitted to view, copy, print and distribute publications and documents within this website (such as FAQs, white papers, datasheets, press releases and so on), subject to your agreement that: a) your use of the information is for informational, personal, and non-commercial purposes only, b) you will not modify the documents, publications or graphics, c) you will not copy or distribute graphics separate from their accompanying text and you will not quote materials out of their context, d) you will display the below copyright notice and other proprietary notices on every copy you make, and e) you agree that IIDA may revoke this permission at any time and you shall immediately stop your activities related to this permission upon notice from IIDA. Use for any other purpose is expressly prohibited by law, and may result in severe civil and criminal penalties. Violators will be prosecuted to the maximum extent possible.
The permission above to use documents and publications does not include permission to copy the design elements, look and feel, or layout of this website. Those elements of the website are protected by law, such as trade dress, trademark, unfair competition, and other laws and may not be copied or imitated in whole or in part. No logo, graphic, sound or image from the website may be copied or retransmitted unless expressly permitted by IIDA.
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED OTHERWISE, IIDA AND/OR ITS RESPECTIVE SUPPLIERS MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT THE SUITABILITY OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE DOCUMENTS AND PUBLICATIONS AND RELATED GRAPHICS PUBLISHED ON THE WEBSITE FOR ANY PURPOSE. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED OTHERWISE, ALL SUCH DOCUMENTS AND RELATED GRAPHICS ARE PROVIDED “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED OTHERWISE, IIDA AND/OR ITS RESPECTIVE SUPPLIERS HEREBY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS WITH REGARD TO THIS INFORMATION, INCLUDING ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL IIDA AND/OR ITS RESPECTIVE SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THE WEBSITE.
THE DOCUMENTS AND RELATED GRAPHICS PUBLISHED ON THE SERVICES COULD INCLUDE TECHNICAL INACCURACIES OR TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS. CHANGES ARE PERIODICALLY ADDED TO THE INFORMATION HEREIN. IIDA AND/OR ITS RESPECTIVE SUPPLIERS MAY MAKE IMPROVEMENTS AND/OR CHANGES IN THE PRODUCT(S) AND/OR THE PROGRAM(S) DESCRIBED HEREIN AT ANY TIME WITHOUT NOTICE.
Disclaimers and Other Notices of the Use of the Website
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED OTHERWISE, ALL INFORMATION, SOFTWARE, DOCUMENTATION, MATERIALS, SERVICES AND PUBLICATION ARE PROVIDED “AS-IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND AND IIDA HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN ADDITION, EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED OTHERWISE, IIDA DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, TITLE, OR QUIET ENJOYMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL IIDA AND/OR ITS RESPECTIVE SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF THIS WEBSITE, USE OR PERFORMANCE OF SOFTWARE, DOCUMENTS, MATERIALS, PUBLICATIONS, PROVISION OF OR FAILURE TO PROVIDE SERVICES, OR INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THE WEBSITE.
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED OTHERWISE, YOU ASSUME ALL RISKS CONCERNING THE SUITABILITY AND ACCURACY OF THE INFORMATION WITHIN THE WEBSITE, MATERIALS, PUBLICATIONS AND DOCUMENTS. THE WEBSITE, MATERIALS, PUBLICATIONS AND DOCUMENTS MAY CONTAIN TECHNICAL INACCURACIES OR TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS. IIDA ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR AND DISCLAIMS ALL LIABILITY FOR ANY SUCH INACCURACIES, ERRORS OR OMISSIONS IN THE WEBSITE, MATERIALS, PUBLICATIONS AND DOCUMENTS AND IN ANY OTHER REFERENCE.
IIDA MAY MAKE CHANGES TO THE WEBSITE, INFORMATION, SOFTWARE, WEBSITE, DOCUMENTS, PUBLICATIONS, PRICES, TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS, PRODUCT OFFERINGS AND ANY OTHER INFORMATION AND MATERIALS ON THE WEBSITE AT ANY TIME AND WITHOUT NOTICE.
THE WEBSITE, DOCUMENTS AND PUBLICATIONS ARE DISTRIBUTED INTERNATIONALLY AND MAY CONTAIN REFERENCES OR CROSS-REFERENCES TO IIDA PRODUCTS, PROGRAMS, AND SERVICES THAT HAVE NOT BEEN ANNOUNCED OR AVAILABLE IN YOUR COUNTRY. SUCH REFERENCES DO NOT IMPLY THAT IIDA INTENDS TO ANNOUNCE SUCH PRODUCTS, PROGRAMS, OR SERVICES IN YOUR COUNTRY. CONSULT YOUR LOCAL IIDA BUSINESS CONTACT FOR INFORMATION REGARDING THE PRODUCTS, PROGRAMS AND SERVICES WHICH MAY BE AVAILABLE TO YOU.
THE WEBSITE CONTAINS LINKS TO THIRD-PARTY SITES WHICH ARE NOT UNDER THE CONTROL OF IIDA AND IIDA IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONTENTS ON ANY LINKED SITE OR ANY LINK CONTAINED IN A LINKED SITE, OR ANY CHANGES OR UPDATES TO SUCH SITES. IIDA IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR WEBCASTING OR ANY OTHER FORM OF TRANSMISSION RECEIVED FROM ANY LINKED SITE. IIDA IS PROVIDING THESE LINKS TO YOU ONLY AS A CONVENIENCE, AND THE INCLUSION OF ANY LINK DOES NOT IMPLY THAT IIDA ENDORSES OR ACCEPTS ANY RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CONTENT ON SUCH THIRD-PARTY SITES.
Accounts and Security
If any of the services on the website requires you to open an account, you must complete the registration process by providing us with true, current, complete and accurate information as prompted by the applicable registration form, and you will maintain and promptly update such information to keep it true, current, complete and accurate. You also will choose a password and a user name. You are entirely responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of your password and account. Furthermore, you are entirely responsible for any and all activities that occur under your account. You agree to notify IIDA immediately of any unauthorized use of your account or any other breach of security. IIDA will not be liable for any loss that you may incur as a result of someone else using your password or account, either with or without your knowledge. However, you could be held liable for losses incurred by IIDA or another party due to someone else using your account or password. You may not use anyone else’s account at any time, without the permission of the account holder. You acknowledge and agree that certain services may provide password-restricted access to customer information such as names and certain terms of your contracts. By using this website and registering for such services, you consent to IIDA’s display of such information via the services and accept all risks of unauthorized access to such information. If you provide any information that is false, inaccurate, out of date, or incomplete, or IIDA has a reasonable ground to suspect that such information is false, inaccurate, not current, or incomplete, IIDA may suspend or terminate your account and refuse any and all current or future use of the services or any portion thereof. You are responsible for all costs and charges, including without limitation, phone charges and telecommunications equipment that you incur in order to use the services.
No Unlawful or Prohibited Use
As a condition of your use of the website, you will not use the website for any purpose that is unlawful or prohibited by these terms, conditions, and notices. You may not use the Services in any manner that could damage, disable, overburden, or impair any IIDA server, or the network(s) connected to any IIDA server, or interfere with any other party’s use and enjoyment of the website. You may not attempt to gain unauthorized access to services, materials, other accounts, computer systems or networks connected to any IIDA server or to the website, through hacking, password mining or any other means. You may not obtain or attempt to obtain any materials or information through any means not intentionally made available through the website.
Use of Services on the Website
The website may contain e-mail services, bulletin board services, chat areas, news groups, forums, communities, personal web pages, calendars, photo albums and/or other message or communication facilities designed to enable you to communicate with others (each a “Communication Service” and collectively “Communication Services”). You agree to use the Communication Services only to post, send and receive messages and material that are proper and, when applicable, related to the particular Communication Service. By way of example, and not as a limitation, you agree that when using the Communication Services or the website, you will not:
- Use the Communication Services or the website in connection with surveys, contests, pyramid schemes, chain letters, junk email, spamming or any duplicative or unsolicited messages (commercial or otherwise).
- Defame, abuse, harass, stalk, threaten or otherwise violate the legal rights (such as rights of privacy and publicity) of others.
- Publish, post, upload, distribute or disseminate any inappropriate, profane, defamatory, obscene, obscene as to minors, child pornography, racist, lewd, lascivious, filthy, excessively violent, harassing, indecent, unlawful, or otherwise objectionable topic, name, material or information.
- Upload, or otherwise make available, files that contain images, photographs, software or other material protected by intellectual property laws, including, by way of example, and not as limitation, copyright or trademark laws (or by rights of privacy or publicity) unless you own or control the rights thereto or have received all necessary consent to do the same.
- Use any material or information, including images or photographs, which are made available through the website in any manner that infringes any copyright, trademark, patent, trade secret, or other proprietary right of any party.
- Upload files that contain viruses, Trojan horses, worms, time bombs, cancelbots, corrupted files, or any other similar software or programs that may damage the operation of another’s computer or property of another.
- Advertise or offer to sell or buy any goods or services for any business purpose, unless such Communication Services specifically allows such messages.
- Download any file posted by another user of a Communication Service that you know, or reasonably should know, cannot be legally reproduced, displayed, performed, and/or distributed in such manner.
- Falsify or delete any copyright management information, such as author attributions, legal or other proper notices or proprietary designations or labels of the origin or source of software or other material contained in a file that is uploaded.
- Restrict or inhibit any other user from using and enjoying the Communication Services.
- Violate any code of conduct or other guideline which may be applicable for any particular Communication Service.
- Harvest or otherwise collect information about others, including e-mail addresses.
- Violate any applicable laws or regulations.
- Create a false identity for the purpose of misleading others.
- Use, download or otherwise copy, or provide (whether or not for a fee) to a person or entity any directory of users of the Communication Services or other user or usage information or any portion thereof.
- Use any IIDA domain name as a pseudonymous return email address for any communications that you transmit from another location or through another service.
- Transmit unsolicited or bulk communications to any IIDA account holder or to any IIDA.com or affiliated email address (regardless of whether you use the website to transmit any such communication).
- Disrupt the normal flow of dialogue, cause a screen to “scroll” faster than other users of the website are able to type, or otherwise act in a manner that negatively affects other users’ ability to engage in real time exchanges.
IIDA has no obligation to monitor the Communication Services. However, IIDA reserves the right to review materials posted to the Communication Services and to remove and/or edit any materials in its sole discretion. IIDA reserves the right to terminate your access to any or all of the Communication Services at any time, without notice, for any reason whatsoever.
IIDA reserves the right at all times to disclose any information as IIDA deems necessary to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or governmental request, or to edit, refuse to post or to remove any information or materials, in whole or in part, in IIDA’s sole discretion.
Always use caution when giving out any personally identifiable information about yourself or your children in any Communication Services. IIDA does not control or endorse the content, messages or information found in any Communication Services and, therefore, IIDA specifically disclaims any liability with regard to the Communication Services and any actions resulting from your participation in any Communication Services. Managers and hosts are not authorized IIDA spokespersons, and their views do not necessarily reflect those of IIDA.
Materials uploaded to the Communication Services may be subject to posted limitations on usage, reproduction and/or dissemination; you are responsible for adhering to such limitations if you download the materials.
Materials Provided to IIDA or Posted to the Website
Unless otherwise specified, IIDA does not claim ownership of the materials you provide to IIDA (including, without limitation, information, ideas, concepts, techniques, feedback, data, questions, comments and suggestions, or the like) or post, upload, input or submit to the website or its associated services for review by IIDA, the general public, and/or by the members of any public or private community (each a “Submission” and collectively “Submissions”), and such.
Submissions shall be deemed not to be confidential. However, by posting, uploading, inputting, providing or submitting (“Posting”) your Submission you are granting IIDA, its affiliated companies and necessary sub-licensees permission to use your Submission in connection with the operation of their businesses (including, without limitation, all IIDA services), including, without limitation, the license rights to: copy, distribute, transmit, publicly display, publicly perform, reproduce, edit, modify, translate and reformat your Submissions; to publish your name in connection with your Submission; develop, manufacture, and market products incorporating such ideas, concepts, or techniques, and the right to sublicense such rights to any supplier of the services and/or materials on the website.
No compensation will be paid with respect to the use of your Submission, as provided herein. IIDA is under no obligation to post or use any Submission you may provide and IIDA may remove any Submission at any time in its sole discretion.
You understand that all Submissions, whether publicly posted or privately transmitted, are the sole responsibility of the person from whom such Submissions originated. This means that you, and not IIDA, are entirely responsible for all Submissions that you upload, post, provide, input, submit, or otherwise transmit via the website. IIDA does not control the Submissions posted via the website and, as such, does not guarantee the accuracy, integrity or quality of such Submissions. You understand that by using the website, you may be exposed to Submissions from others that are offensive, indecent or objectionable.
Notices and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement
IIDA will investigate notices of copyright infringement and take appropriate actions under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Title 17, United States Code, Section 512(c)(2) (“DMCA”). Pursuant to the DMCA, written notification of claimed copyright infringement must be submitted to the following Designated Agent for this website:
International Interior Design Association
Attn: Communication Department
Full address of designated agent to which notification should be sent:
222 Merchandise Mart Plaza, Suite 567
Chicago, IL 60654
E-mail address of designated agent:
To be effective, the Notification must include the following:
- A physical or electronic signature of a person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.
- Identification of the copyrighted work claimed to have been infringed, or if multiple copyrighted works at a single online site are covered by a single notification, a representative list of such works at that site.
- Identification of the material that is claimed to be infringing or to be the subject of infringing activity and that is to be removed or access to which is to be disabled, and information reasonably sufficient to permit the service provider to locate the material.
- Information reasonably sufficient to permit the service provider to contact the complaining party, such as an address, telephone number, and if available, an electronic mail address at which the complaining party may be contacted.
- A statement that the complaining party has a good faith belief that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law.
- A statement that the information in the notification is accurate, and under penalty of perjury, that the complaining party is authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.
Unsolicited Idea Submission Policy
IIDA OR ANY OF ITS EMPLOYEES DO NOT ACCEPT OR CONSIDER UNSOLICITED IDEAS, INCLUDING IDEAS FOR NEW ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS, NEW PROMOTIONS, NEW PRODUCTS OR TECHNOLOGIES, PROCESSES, MATERIALS, MARKETING PLANS OR NEW PRODUCT NAMES. PLEASE DO NOT SEND ANY ORIGINAL CREATIVE ARTWORK, SAMPLES, DEMOS, OR OTHER WORKS. THE SOLE PURPOSE OF THIS POLICY IS TO AVOID POTENTIAL MISUNDERSTANDINGS OR DISPUTES WHEN IIDA’S PRODUCTS OR MARKETING STRATEGIES MIGHT SEEM SIMILAR TO IDEAS SUBMITTED TO IIDA. SO, PLEASE DO NOT SEND YOUR UNSOLICITED IDEAS TO IIDA HEADQUARTERS OR TO ANY IIDA CHAPTERS. IF, DESPITE OUR REQUEST THAT YOU NOT SEND US YOUR IDEAS AND MATERIALS, YOU STILL SEND THEM, PLEASE UNDERSTAND THAT IIDA MAKES NO ASSURANCES THAT YOUR IDEAS AND MATERIALS WILL BE TREATED AS CONFIDENTIAL OR PROPRIETARY.
Spam E-mail and Postings
Advertisements and Promotions
IIDA may run advertisements and promotions from third parties on the website. The manner, mode and extent of advertising by IIDA is subject to change. Your correspondence or business dealings with, or participation in promotions of, advertisers other than IIDA found on or through the website, including payment and delivery of related goods or services, and any other terms, conditions, warranties or representations associated with such dealings, are solely between you and such advertiser. IIDA is not responsible or liable for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as the result of any such dealings or as the result of the presence of such non-IIDA advertisers on the website.
Refunds, Returns, Exchanges
Online payments are by credit card only. IIDA uses secure server link (SSL) technology on all transactions including pay dues, ticketing, register, or any page that collects sensitive user information. IIDA accepts MasterCard, Visa, and American Express. IIDA uses third parties to validate and process on/offline payments made by credit cards. All purchases made on the IIDA website are final; no refunds, returns, or exchanges will be issued.
Copyright and Trademark Information
COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Copyright © 2009 IIDA, 222 Merchandise Mart Plaza, Suite 567, Chicago, IL 60654 USA. All Rights Reserved. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government is subject to the restrictions set forth in DFARS 252.227-7013(c)(1)(ii) and FAR 52.227-19.
TRADEMARKS: and/or other trademarks referenced herein are either registered
trademarks or trademarks of The International Interior Design Association (IIDA) in the U.S. and/or other countries. The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein and/or third party trademarks, trade names and logos contained herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. The example companies, organizations, products, domain names, email addresses, logos, people and events depicted herein are fictitious. No association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, or event is intended or should be inferred. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved.
If you have been granted a right to use a trademark of IIDA, such use shall be in accordance with IIDA’s Trademark Usage Guideline.
IIDA controls and operates this website from its headquarters in various locations in the United States of America and makes no representation that this website is appropriate or available for use in other locations. If you use this website from other locations, you are responsible for compliance with applicable local laws including but not limited to the export and import regulations of other countries.
You acknowledge and agree that material on this website is subject to the U.S. Export Administration Laws and Regulations. Diversion of such material contrary to U.S. law is prohibited. You agree that none of the material on this website, nor any direct product therefrom, is being or will be acquired for, shipped, transferred, or re-exported, directly or indirectly, to proscribed or embargoed countries or their nationals, nor be used for nuclear activities, chemical biological weapons, or missile projects unless authorized by the U.S. Government. Proscribed countries are set forth in the U.S. Export.
Countries subject to U.S. embargo are: Afghanistan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Syria, Serbia and Sudan. This list is subject to change without further notice from IIDA, and you must comply with the list, as it exists in fact. You certify that you are not on the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Denied Persons List or affiliated lists or on the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Specially Designated Nationals List. You agree to comply strictly with all U.S. export laws and assume sole responsibility for obtaining licenses to export or re-export as may be required.